Win cash rewards worth Rs.45,000. Participate in "A Writing Contest with a TWIST".
Win cash rewards worth Rs.45,000. Participate in "A Writing Contest with a TWIST".

Amritangshu Ghosh

Classics Inspirational Others


Amritangshu Ghosh

Classics Inspirational Others

What is the Infinite Power?

What is the Infinite Power?

67 mins 503 67 mins 503





'Atma' is a term derived from the Sanskrit word, 'Atman'. The disembodied spirit of a deceased person is called 'Atma' or 'Soul'. Ancient people were god-fearing and they believed on God with blind eyes. They have also claimed that after a person dies, his soul gets free and kills those who had done wrong with that person. But, actually what are the scientific proofs behind the existence of soul? For this answer, we have to go to some of the places which are declared haunted. Some places, forts, buildings, ancient tombs, minars, etc are considered to be the places where soul exists and creates an extraordinary sense among the people.

Not only these myths are claimed, people also said that there is a positive power, which can remove the negatives. This positive power is named God. Soul and God are two opposite terms. Some people also say that some ancient persons like Trailanga Swami of Benaras, Lokenath Brahmachari of Chaurasi Chakla, Bamakshepa of Tarapith, Anandmoyee Maa, etc have seen the positive power. But, the Aryans say, "God is one, formless, birthless, deathless, diseaseless, etc". These facts are having many debates for years. Several people claim that God is there, and several are opposed to the presence of God. But, in this modern world, truth is the main base, on which everything can be proved. So, we need to clear this fact of the existence of God. Now, let's talk about the life of some saints who have seen God.


Lokenath Brahmachari: Lokenath Brahmachari, also called Lokenath Baba, was born in 1640 at Chaurasi Chakla, near Kolkata of West Bengal. His father's name was Ramnarayan Ghosal and his mother, Kamala Devi. Lokenath was a very curious and good child. He was very genial and he helped all the people of his village. Due to his family's poverties, each and every people of the village told bad word's to them. But, the zamindar of the village loved them. Lokenath leaved his house at the age of 10 with his guru, Bhagwan Ganguly and his friend, Beni. Their target was to go to the far off Himalayas, attain moksha and then, come back to serve the poor, needy, and those people, who are considered backwards. So, they spent there several years and finally attained moksha from Lord Shiva. Lokenath Baba had seen Shiva a lot of times. His guru, Bhagwan Ganguly died at a very old age. Lokenath Baba died at the age of 160 at Bardi, in Bangladesh. He had died after serving many people. People also say that he had died while doing meditation. Many religious books tell that Lokenath Baba's soul has till, not taken re-birth because Lokenath Baba told that he will come to his followers whenever they will call him with faith. And, these stories continued for years and years.

Bamakshepa: Bamakshepa was born in 1837, in the village of Atla near Tarapura (or Tarapith) in Birbhum, West Bengal, India. He was named Bamacara by his father, a religious man named Sarvananda Chatterji. He was the second son and had a sister who was later widowed. Because of his religious zeal, he was called kshepa, or mad person. Later, he attained moksha from mother Tara. People also say that he could do various kinds of powerful magic by tantras (powerful havan). There are many stories of Bamakshepa which people of Tarapith do believe. And now, his grave his given puja every day.

There are many more saints in India who have seen God. Many pilgrims go to far-off holy places to get the blessings of God. But, have we ever thought whether these supernatural powers exist or not? For the answer, the chapters of this book would help you.

Who is God? The fact of God's existence is so conspicuous, both through creation and through man's conscience, that the Bible calls the atheist a "fool". Accordingly, the Bible never attempts to prove the existence of God; rather, it assumes His existence from the very beginning. What the Bible does is reveal the nature, character, and work of God.

God according to Hinduism-

Hindus following Advaita Vedanta consider atman within every living being to be the same as Vishnu or Shiva or Devi, or alternatively identical to the eternal metaphysical Absolute called Brahman in Hinduism. Such a philosophical system of Advaita or non-dualism as it developed in the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy, especially as set out in the Upanishads and popularized by Adi Shankara in the 9th century has been influential on Hinduism.

Hindus following Dvaita Vedanta consider that the individual souls, known as jīvātmans, and the eternal metaphysical Absolute called Brahman in Hinduism exist as independent realities, and that these are distinct. Such a philosophical system of Dvaita or dualism as it developed in the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy, especially as set out in the Vedas and popularized by Madhvacharya in the 13th century has been influential on Hinduism. Especially the influence of Madhva's philosophy has been most prominent and pronounced on the Chaitanya school of Bengal Vaishnavism. Madhva says that in the beginning there was only one God and that was Narayana or Vishnu and refused to accept any claims that other Hindu deities, such as Brahma or Shiva, might be equally the highest.

But, God is anything which is considered to be divine. This definition is put forward by Oxford University during their research on God.

GOD is a word which can remove all obstacles of life (as per believers of God). After continuous study, many scientists have also claimed that God really exists as a power. But, if there is God, why can't we see him? Jesus Christ said, "Only belief in God, he is watching you from the heaven and if you do goods, he will really bless you." Many people also consider Jesus Christ as the real God with human avatar (human form), but if he is God, are the Aryans telling the wrong? This problem creates a typical confusion in the mind. But, there is also another aspect of life, which can uphold the truth. You can know that aspect if you continue reading this book with interest.

HUMAN LIFE is a dynamic thing and it is not fixed to a single topic. Many topics rotate in the mind continuously. Whether it is a simple or a compound thinking, but there is something going in your mind continuously. Many people also tell that we, the human beings are made by God. God made us and we are the servant of that power. But is that true or fake?



What is Ghost?


There are many places of India, which are considered haunted. People from various parts of the world spend their money and come to India to see those haunted places. Are these places really haunted or we create haunted feelings within those people? Let's see some of those places, which are considered haunted.

BHANGARH FORT- Bhangarh Fort is a fort which stands on the Aravalli mountain range. The fort was built on 1631 in the Rajasthan state. It was built by Bhagwant Das for his younger son Madho Singh. The fort was made with stones and bricks. A tale says that a wizard adept in black magic named Sinhai fell in love with Ratnavati, a beautiful princess. One day, the wizard followed her to the marketplace and offered her a love potion; however, she refused it and threw the potion, it turned into a boulder and killed the wizard. The wizard, before dying, cursed the princess, her family, and the entire village. Due to that curse, nobody in the village or fort could reborn again. Many people also say that if any villager tries to build a roof, it apparently mysteriously collapses. Entry inside the fort between sunrise and sunset is prohibited. But, the local guides say that they have not sensed any paranormal activity in the fort.

TAJ MAHAL PALACE HOTEL, MUMBAI- This is a five-star luxury hotel located in the Colaba region of Mumbai. It was one of the main visible targets of the 2008 Mumbai attacks. Some people claim the hotel, specifically the Old Wing, is haunted by the ghost of the English engineer W.A. Chambers who completed the project, jumped off from the 5th floor of the hotel in frustration after knowing that the hotel was constructed not in accordance of his plan. Many people, who have stayed in the hotel, claimed to have seen a shadow running up and down the stairs.

KULDHARA VILLAGE- This is an abandoned village in the Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan. It was established around the 13th century. It was abandoned actually because of dwindling water supplies. Studies also tell that Kuldhara and other neighboring villages were abandoned because of an earthquake. Gradually, the village acquired the honor as a haunted place. Many people claimed to have seen moving shadows, haunting voices, talking spirits, and other supernatural activities.

RAMOJI FILM CITY, HYDERABAD- This is one of the biggest film industries in India. But this is a haunted place also. Actually, this film city was built on the Nizams battle field. Here, spirits of the dead soldiers wander all around the city. Many actresses claim to have felt something supernatural during shooting. Some directors have also seen someone scratching the mirrors and writing Urdu script.

LOTHIAN CEMETERY, DELHI- This cemetery was established in 1808. People say that a British officer, Sir Nicholas's ghost roams in the cemetery. Nicholas fell in love with an Indian lady but could not be married. So, Nicholas shot himself in the head. People also claim that they have heard the cry of Nicholas and telling the name of his love.

 DUMAS BEACH, GUJARAT- This beach, once was a Hindu burial ground. According to the local people, some paranormal activity occurs in this beach, but the real fact is still unproven.

SAVOY HOTEL, MUSSOORIE- This is a historic luxury hotel of Mussoorie, Uttarakhand. People say that here, in this hotel, the ghost of Lady Garnet Orme roams inside the hotel searching for her murderer. She was murdered by mixing a rodent killer in her food. But, after the hotel was reconstructed by ITC Limited, no paranormal activity was reported till date.

There are many other haunted places in India. According to me, people make rumors about ghosts. If ghosts exist, why everyone cannot see it? Then also, many people believe on ghosts. About 43% population of America believes on ghost. Some renowned professors and scientists tell that when we fall asleep, the reticular formation of the brainstem typically starts to inhibit our ability to move, see and hear things. The existence of ghost may be a rumor.

A woman from America said that after the death of his father, one day, she had seen his father standing at the end of the bed. But, at last she also claimed that it was her mental thinking which she have sensed in reality. This type of incident is taken true and such type of story continues for years with more horror incident merged up together.

Rumor creates more haunted feelings within the public. Even this type of rumors is linked with various businesses. Various tantrics and priests of temple do perform havan and special puja to remove ghosts from body and from haunted places.

But, the main thing is that, we should be brave and courageous. We should not give up unless and until we can find the real fact and mystery behind the paranormal activities. Various images of ghost are uploaded in social sites which make common social media users to fear. But, we should not fear at any cost. Teenagers and small children fear the most because they are having a special interest on ghost. We should engage ourselves more on our work to take away our minds from the topic of ghosts.

1.Paranormal Facts Exist: The term "paranormal" applies to anything currently beyond the range of scientific explanation. So anyone who claims they have access to the rulebook of the paranormal, and that they know a foolproof way of making a ghost go "boo!" is probably a charlatan … or about to be pretty famous. Plenty of researchers -- including reputable scientists -- have compelling theories about unexplained phenomena and are attempting to apply those utilizing the scientific method, but so far, paranormal facts don't quite exist.

2. Ghosts Only Come Out at Night

There are a lot of reasons to ghost hunt at night: The world quiets down as the day fades away; some locations only let you enter after the close of daytime business hours; it is much creepier at night; and, most importantly, it's the best time to play with your sweet night vision camera! But if you want to chase ghosts, you can just as effectively do it during the day, according to most paranormal researchers. In fact, it might even be a more effective time because that's when the dead were probably most alive.

3. There is No Physical Evidence of Bigfoot

While there have not been any bodies found, Bigfoot researchers claim there is quite a bit of physical evidence to suggest the creatures exists -- including hair, blood, tissue, tracks and, yes, poop.There is also a growing community of scientists who believe in Sasquatch, including famed primatologist Dr. Jane Goodall and Dr. Jeffrey Meldrum of Idaho State University, among others. Eric Altman of the Pennsylvania Bigfoot Society stresses that, as far as the lack of physical remains (a dead Sasquatch), fossilization requires very specific conditions and Mother Nature has an effective system of breaking down animal remains in about 10 days -- so a freshly-dead specimen of the already-rare creature would be hard to find.

4. Only Old Buildings are haunted

A decrepit, ancient Victorian mansion with broken windows, creaky floorboards and moldy furniture may be the best haunted house in Hollywood, but it's not where ghosts necessarily hang out. Beyond just old houses, researchers claim to have found paranormal evidence in jails, asylums, hospitals, hotels, museums, battleships, cruise liners, cars, roads and forests. New locations can also be haunted, as can the ground where a new building is established. There doesn't necessarily have to be a death on the property, either. It is widely accepted within the paranormal community that objects and people themselves can be the focus of a haunting.

5. America's Paranormal Fascination is New

Although the paranormal has become quite popular with the arrival of investigation-based reality shows, America's fascination dates back to the origins of the nation. The paranormal peaked in the US in the mid-19th and early 20th centuries with the introduction of Spiritualism, a religious philosophy that espoused that communication with the spirit world is positive. Mary Todd Lincoln, Mark Twain and Harry Houdini were among the American celebrities who became part of the paranormal conversation, and the public gathered in homes and auditoriums to connect with the dead in séances. Beyond ghosts, future president Teddy Roosevelt wrote of a frontiersman's encounter with a Bigfoot-like creature in 1893, and other Sasquatch stories would periodically make their way into the news. Long before the Battle of Los Angeles in 1942 or The Roswell Incident in 1947, "airships" were reported in the skies above America -- and newspaperman S.E. Haydon wrote about the crash of such a ship in Aurora, Texas, in 1897, about 6 years before the Wright Brothers' first flight.

6. Aliens are Little Green Men in Flying Saucers

Actually, the most popular aliens are little grey men, according to believers. In America, "The Grays" are the archetypes when discussing alien encounters, and were supposedly found in The Roswell Incident. The creatures supposedly have large, black, buggy eyes and a slit for a mouth on their oversized noggin. However, aggressive reptilians and blonde-haired Nordic humanoids have also been reported by eyewitnesses, along with dozens of other alien species. As for the flying saucer part, UFOlogists claim we should add flying crescents, cigar-shaped crafts, triangular ships and a V-shaped craft to the classic flying saucer motif.

7. No One Still Believes in Vampires

The bloodsuckers from folklore have enjoyed a nice comeback in paranormal pop culture in the last few years, but they never completely went away in some societies. Recently, Indian politicians placed a $2,000 bounty on vampires sucking the blood from villagers' cattle in the town of Dharampuri in Tamil Nadu, which called to mind the 2004 exhumation and subsequent staking of a corpse in Marotinu de Sus, Romania. The supernatural ghouls may not resemble the beasts of "Twilight" and "True Blood," but they are still very much alive (or undead) in various parts of the world. Even within the United States, there are subcultures of individuals who believe they are among a class of vampire -- with especially active groups in New Orleans and New York City.

8. Modern Zombies are Supernatural

The term "zombie" has been in use for well over a century and, before 1968, applied to seemingly soulless slaves created by Haitian voodoo "magic." After 1968, when George A. Romero's Night of the Living Dead was released, the term was forever changed. Modern zombies are the result of an unexplained contagion but are not supernatural. According to zombie expert Matt Mogk of the Zombie Research Society, the modern zombie is a relentlessly aggressive, re-animated human corpse driven by a biological infection. So, supernatural vampires, mummies, Nordic draugrs and all revenants need not apply for brunch with this bunch.

9. Skeptics and Believers Don't Get Along

There are actually many skeptics involved in the paranormal community, and they are normally welcomed by investigative groups. When the 2 groups operate together, the skeptics can assist in disproving misidentified phenomena. If something cannot be disproven, it then leads believers closer to a possibly legitimate experience. Dave Schrader, host of the popular paranormal radio show Darkness Radio, says paranormal believers are not at war with the "skeptic nation," and he embraces their input because he'd rather be taken seriously when findings are reviewed. Additionally, most skeptics are confused for cynics but actively want a paranormal experience -- but they want it to be real and not just a false positive.

10. The Paranormal is bad for Business

Even if the phenomenon is unexplained, the business world is a big believer in the paranormal. Paranormal Tourism, where travelers spend vacation money on pilgrimages to genre conventions and famous hotspots, is an active industry. Instead of shying away from a paranormal reputation, locations are embracing it. Every city seems to have a few ghost tour operations, while haunted house attractions and vampire balls abound, and entire towns in America are defined by their paranormal personalities. The Roswell UFO Festival attracts droves of alien enthusiasts to New Mexico every July. Meanwhile, Point Pleasant, WV, belongs to The Mothman, and Salem, MA, has a tourism industry focused on the infamous witch trials. Zombie walks, runs and obstacle courses (along with proms, protests and pub crawls) are weekly occurrences in cities across America.

Real Life documented paranormal experiences:

ANNABELLE- Renowned paranormal investigators Edward and Lorraine Warren had procured a Raggedy Doll from two youths that they had claimed to have been possessed by the spirit of Annabelle Higgins in 1970. The Warrens took the doll and after investigating it, told the victims that the doll was "being manipulated by an inhuman presence".AMITYVILLE- The Warrens shot to fame with this case. In 1976, New York-based couple George and Kathy Lutz claimed that their house - 112 Ocean Avenue, a large Dutch colonial house at Amityville - was haunted by a violent demon spirit. The influence was so intense that it drove the couple out of the place. Danny Lutz, George and Kathy's son, currently lives there. When asked about the horrors he faced as a kid there, Danny said, "When I went in there, there was probably 400 or 500 flies ... The entire family is standing there watching the garage door slam up and slam down and the dog is hanging himself."ANNE BOLEYN- Anne Boleyn is a well-known name among history lovers and Tudor cult enthusiasts. According to popular legends, on her death anniversary, her headless ghost manifests itself at Blickling Hall in Norfolk. Some also say that her ghost often appears at the Tower of London, where she was executed in 1536. In 1993, a guard saw her ghost at the tower and charged towards her with his bayonet but went right through her. In 1817, by seeing her ghost, another tower guard died due to heart attack.ANNELIESE MICHEL- In 1968, Anneliese Michel, 16 then, started suffering from convulsions. By 1973, she developed a psychotic state where she would see demonic faces all day and hear voices damning her. She would also make "demon faces", tear her own clothes off, eat coal, and taste her own urine. She also became intolerant of any religious symbol. Over a ten month period in 1975, Anneliese underwent 76 exorcisms, and eventually starved to death.

Stories of ghosts have existed in every culture going back thousands of years, a recent survey conducted in the US revealed that 60% of Americans believe that they have seen ghost, and thousands of paranormal investigators are actively researching the topic around the world. Yet, existence of ghosts is still not recognized by mainstream science, especially as hauntings aren't something you can recreate in the laboratory.Firm believers in the paranormal tend to take a dim view of skeptics, they often deem them to be close-minded and pedantic, but a skeptic would view a believer in the same way. It is not that either group are close-minded, it is just that they have both already formed an opinion on the paranormal and will therefore, in most cases, only consider evidence that supports their stance.For example, if a skeptic does not believe that it is possible to capture the voice of a spirit in audio form by using the technique known as EVP, or Electronic Voice Phenomenon, then they will never accept an EVP as evidence. No matter how many examples you play them, they will simply put the voices down to being audio pareidolia, the human brain's tendency to hear recognizable sounds in abstract noise.

It is hard to convince a believer that ghosts don't exist, as it is to convince a skeptic that they do. However, it is easy to see it from both points of view.Believers often say that skeptics make irrational and endless demands for more and more evidence and that they feel like the skeptic is judging them, but if you are trying to convince that skeptic that ghost exist then you have opened yourself up to judgement and scrutiny and you need to provide evidence in order to convince that person. If you turn the tables, a believer would require an equal amount of evidence to convince them that ghosts do not exist.Another argument that believers use to attack skeptics is that a skeptic cannot possibly make a judgement on the existence of ghosts when they do not know anything about the topic, but this is unfair. There is no reason to assume that a skeptic is not well read in the paranormal, they may have embarked on more paranormal investigations than a believer in order to come to their opinion.So, what exactly would it take to prove that ghosts exist once and for all? What proof would take the paranormal from a fringe or pseudoscience to a mainstream scientific field of study?  Many people do often die out of fear. Survey of 2016 has shown that most of the people of India do fear on ghosts. Mesopotamian religions claim that ghost really exists. It has also been found that according to their culture, spirits live in an invisible form. According to people, ghost can pass through wall. But, if ghost is invisible, why does it possess a shadow? According to physics, shadows can be created only when there is opaque or translucent object. But, shadow can't be created in case of transparent objects. In this, a conflict arises. People consider ghost as invisible, means it is not translucent or opaque according to physics. So, it is very difficult to prove how ghost creates a shadow?

It is even said that dead man's weight is much less than the living state. Most people tell that as the soul gets free, the weight of dead man reduces. There was an experiment done by Duncan MacDougall, a physician from Massachusetts. The story of this study was published in 1907 but the experiment was performed in 1901. MacDougall measured the mass change of six patients at the moment of death. One of the six patients lost three-fourths of an ounce (21.3 grams). Four patients were taken. One was suffering from diabetes, one from unspecified disease and two from tuberculosis. When the patients were near to death, their entire bed was placed on an industrial sized scale. One of the patients lost weight but after sometime the weight was reducing more than before. The two other patients also lost weight but that too after few minutes. Slowly, they began to lose more weight. One of the patients loses 'three-fourth of an ounce' in weight, coinciding with the time of death. But when MacDougall started to experiment the mass change of dogs, he found that there was no change of mass in dogs. So, is there soul inside us? Human Soul has some weight? But science tells that the weight of dead man decreases due to the damage of the cells. For this, the weight of dead man decreases over time. So, which one has to be believed, science or mythology?

Ghosts are considered extraordinary because the idea of them is unable to be authenticated by science. There is no replicable experiment known that can validate a ghost's presence; people coming back after death as spirits defies all scientific laws of nature. Besides hope, the belief of ghosts continues to live on through oral stories that are passed on from person to person. Those in favor of the existence of ghost are mostly believers because they cannot attribute their experiences to normal circumstances. The belief is solely built on personal experience with the help of religious beliefs (life after death, reincarnation, etc.) to explain what happens in the afterlife.

According to Einstein's Law of Conservation of Energy, "Energy is constant and it can neither be created nor be destroyed. It can be only changed into other forms." So, when a person dies, where does his energy go? It must have been converted into other forms of energy according to the Law of Conservation of Energy. Can we call this formation of other kind of energy as 'ghost'? When we are alive, energy helps our body to work, which causes the heart to beat, stomach to perform its functions, etc. So what happen to this energy after a person dies? According to the Aryan civilization, when a person dies, his current form of energy gets converted into other form of energy as a new life. So, if new life is formed from the energy of previous life, then from where ghost is formed? This question still remains unanswered and from this, various haunted stories arise.

Why we should talk about those silly things that are not really proven in terms of science? Well, the answer to this question lies in this chapter only.

Culture, tradition and folklore brought the extended part of the story of ghosts. Gradually, these extensions got converted into a massive story, on which people do fear. These facts are still unproven because people do not want investigations on the spiritual power. They fear that if they know more about ghosts, ghosts will kill them. This type of negative thinking continues even today. In many villages, even in towns also, people believe in these types of superstitions. Superstitions and rumor are both linked together like a chain.

So, according to me, we should not keep our ears on these stories because these stories are too dangerous for the mental health. This may result in mental stress and pressure. According to human biology, over-stress and mental pressure is linked to the cause of mental depression.

Exorcism is a spiritual practice done to remove ghosts from human body and from an area. According to Gita Mahatmya of Padma Purana, reading the 3rd, 7th and 9th chapter of Bhagavad Gita and mentally offering the result to departed persons helps them to get released from their ghostly situation. Kirtan, continuous playing of mantras, keeping scriptures and holy pictures of the deities (Shiva, Vishnu, Hanuman, Brahma, Shakti, etc.) (especially of Narasimha) in the house, burning incense offered during a puja, sprinkling water from holy rivers, and blowing conches used in puja are other effective practices. It is also believed that praying to Lord Hanuman gives the best result as mentioned in the Hanuman Chalisa. It is believed that just uttering the name of Lord Hanuman makes the evil forces and devils tremble in fear. According to history, Possession and exorcism date back to ancient times, possibly beginning with early shamanistic beliefs in which spirits of the dead could do harm to the living. Shamans would enter a trance state to find the troublemaking soul and discover from it the way to end the victim's pain. In ancient Egyptian and Babylonian cultures, illnesses and other afflictions were regularly attributed to evil spirits that invaded the human body, and priest-healers carried out intricate ceremonies to cause the evil spirits to leave.

Scientific Views on the presence of Ghost:

The physician John Ferriar wrote "An Essay towards a Theory of Apparitions" in 1813 in which he argued that sightings of ghosts were the result of optical illusions. Later the French physician Alexandre Jacques François Brière de Boismont published On Hallucinations: Or, the Rational History of Apparitions, Dreams, Ecstasy, Magnetism, and Somnambulism in 1845 in which he claimed sightings of ghosts were the result of hallucinations.

David Turner, a retired physical chemist, suggested that ball lightning could cause inanimate objects to move erratically.

Joe Nickell of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry wrote that there was no credible scientific evidence that any location was inhabited by spirits of the dead. Limitations of human perception and ordinary physical explanations can account for ghost sightings; for example, air pressure changes in a home causing doors to slam, humidity changes causing boards to creak, condensation in electrical connections causing intermittent behavior, or lights from a passing car reflected through a window at night. Pareidolia, an innate tendency to recognize patterns in random perceptions, is what some skeptics believe causes people to believe that they have 'seen ghosts'. Reports of ghosts "seen out of the corner of the eye" may be accounted for by the sensitivity of human peripheral vision. According to Nickell, peripheral vision can easily mislead, especially late at night when the brain is tired and more likely to misinterpret sights and sounds. Nickell further states, "science cannot substantiate the existence of a 'life energy' that could survive death without dissipating or function at all without a brain... why would... clothes survive?'" He asks, if ghosts glide, then why do people claim to hear them with "heavy footfalls"? Nickell says that ghosts act the same way as "dreams, memories, and imaginings, because they too are mental creations. They are evidence - not of another world, but of this real and natural one."

Benjamin Radford from the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry and author of the 2017 book Investigating Ghosts: The Scientific Search for Spirits writes that "ghost hunting is the world's most popular paranormal pursuit" yet, to date ghost hunters can't agree on what a ghost is, or offer proof that they exist "it's all speculation and guesswork". He writes that it would be "useful and important to distinguish between types of spirits and apparitions. Until then it's merely a parlor game distracting amateur ghost hunters from the task at hand."

According to research in anomalistic psychology visions of ghosts may arise from hypnagogic hallucinations ("waking dreams" experienced in the transitional states to and from sleep). In a study of two experiments into alleged hauntings (Wiseman et al. 2003) came to the conclusion "that people consistently report unusual experiences in 'haunted' areas because of environmental factors, which may differ across locations." Some of these factors included "the variance of local magnetic fields, size of location and lighting level stimuli of which witnesses may not be consciously aware".

Some researchers, such as Michael Persinger of Laurentian University, Canada, have speculated that changes in geomagnetic fields (created, e.g., by tectonic stresses in the Earth's crust or solar activity) could stimulate the brain's temporal lobes and produce many of the experiences associated with hauntings. Sound is thought to be another cause of supposed sightings. Richard Lord and Richard Wiseman have concluded that infrasound can cause humans to experience bizarre feelings in a room, such as anxiety, extreme sorrow, a feeling of being watched, or even the chills. Carbon monoxide poisoning, which can cause changes in perception of the visual and auditory systems, was speculated upon as a possible explanation for haunted houses as early as 1921.

People who experience sleep paralysis often report seeing ghosts during their experiences. Neuroscientists Baland Jalal and V.S. Ramachandran have recently proposed neurological theories for why people hallucinate ghosts during sleep paralysis. Their theories emphasize the role of the parietal lobe and mirror neurons in triggering such ghostly hallucinations.



The relationship between God and Soul is not much similar. Their similarity is that they are all invisible powers. Survey tells that about 33% population of India do not believe in God. Why this small percentage of people does not believe in God? Well, the answer is that they are also trying to find the real existence of God. There are many papers and articles which try to find the existence of God. But they are also not fully correct because the reasons provided by them are not universally applicable. They are also wrong in case of some circumstances. In this chapter, we will come to know about those places, where God's power can be seen.

LAKHIMPUR, UTTAR PRADESH- Lakhimpur is a small village of the state of Uttar Pradesh. There, in that village, lies a temple of Lord Shiva. Local people and the priests of the temple say that at night, mythological character Ashwaddhama and an ancient warrior Alha gives puja to the lord in the temple. According to geographical location, there are two rivers lying on the two sides of the temple, and the temple lies in between the two rivers. The most amazing characteristic of the temple is that the idol is locked in a cage because the priests saw that somebody comes in the temple at night and give puja to the idol. This incident will be shocking to you. But believe me, this incident is true. At night, in one of the rivers, Ashwaddhama and Alha baths and comes inside the temple. When they step inside the temple, rain comes and strong winds blow. Usually, a lotus is kept on the idol. But at 4am, when the chief pujari comes back to the temple, and open the cage, he can see water on the idol. This incident is according to local people. But, this incident can also be proved with the help of science. Botanical Science tells that lotus has high water content because they absorb more water. So, when the lotus is kept on the idol, the rocks try to absorb the water from the rocky structure of the idol. This process can be better told as Osmosis.

MANI MAHESH KAILASH PEAK, HIMACHAL PRADESH- Mani Mahesh Kailash peak is a mountain near Manimahesh Lake, which is located in the Bharmour subdivision of Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. The mountain is covered with snow from the month of October to June. The height of the mountain is 5653 m. Legend tells that the mountain is another living place of Lord Shiva. The mountain is also known as Shiva's Chaugan (Play Field). A rare event of the first sun rays falling on the Manimahesh Kailash peak is seen as reflection in the lake like saffron tilak. Local people claim that the moon-rays reflected from the jewel of Lord Shiva can be seen from the Manimahesh Lake on clear full-moon nights (this is also a rare occasion). But scientists tell that it may be due to the presence of radioactive materials on the mountains, for which it glows at night (especially on full-moon days). They also claim that it may be due to a special kind of microbes, which reflects yellowish-white light from the light of moon. 

SITAPUR, UTTAR PRADESH- Sitapur is a small town of Uttar Pradesh. It is about 90km away from Lucknow. There, in Sitapur, lies a Kund on the bank of river Gomti. Priests and pilgrims tell that there was an idol of Lord Shiva right under the Kund. So, they offer puja to the idol by dropping the fruits, leaves, etc in the Kund. And, when they drop it in the Kund, some of the offerings sink while some floats automatically. But, if they do this in other side of Gomti, the scene will be just opposite to that of the Kund. Suppose, if you drop 4 fruits in the Kund water, some will float and some will sink. Is there any power behind science? Now, we have only one question that is why this amazing happen in that special boundary only? Well, the answer by priests is that because the idol is under that Kund only. According to a scientist of Delhi, every heavy object does not sink in water. It also depends upon the density and the buoyancy. For example, ice floats on water because ice has a cage-like structure. Similarly it is the density for which, objects can also float on water. According to him, all the fruits dropped in the river do not have same density, so some floats and some sinks inside. Not only these, he had also claimed that it also depends upon the clear level of the Kund, for which the fruits may float and some may sink. Therefore, depth of water, clear level and density of fruit depends upon this incident that is taking place every day (according to the scientist).

RAJIM, CHHATTISGARH- Another amazing incident of the presence of God can traced to the Rajiv Lochan Temple of Chhattisgarh, which is located 1300kms away from Delhi. But before knowing the facts of Rajiv Lochan Temple, we have to know the facts behind the Kuleshwar Mahadev Temple, which is located near Rajiv Lochan Temple. According to the Hindu mythology, here in the Kuleshwar Temple, Rama and Sita worshiped Lord Shiva while they were staying in forest (at Vanbas). Lomesh Rishi was a strong devotee of lord Shiva and Vishnu. The ashram of Lomesh Rishi is situated near the Rajiv Lochan Temple. In Lomesh Rishi Ashram, it is believed that Maharishi Lomesh walks here every day during the night time. It is also believed that Lomesh Rishi worships Mahadev in Kuleshwar Temple every day before the main pujari worships. It is believed that Lord Vishnu stays here and eats the foods provided to Him every day. Bed is made for the Lord to rest. Lord is given rest in every afternoon and night. When the pujari comes during the evening time and during the dawn, he can see that the bed clothes are folded, turned, which shows that the Lord really rests on the bed. Even, the foods offered has fingerprints, which shows that Lord Vishnu ate the foods with his own hands. Every Saturday, massage is done to the idol by rubbing oil all over. As per the rituals, bed is also decorated and when the pujari comes back during the dawn at Sunday, he can see that there are signs of oil on the bed, which also proves that Lord Vishnu really sleeps on the bed. A philosopher of Delhi told that we have seen god eating fruits, drinking milk, etc. But why don't these amazing happen with the idols present in our home?

OMKARESHWAR, MADHYA PRADESH- According to local people and the priests, in this temple, Goddess Parvati and Lord Shiva rests and plays 'Chaupar'. But how can this happen? There are many CCTV's inside and outside the temple. After watching the videos captured by the CCTV'S also, we can say that Lord Shiva really comes here at night. It is said that the dices of the chaupar changes automatically. The main priest of this temple says that when he opens the temple at dawn, he can see that the dices of the chaupar are changed.

RANSU, JAMMU & KASHMIR- Another unbelievable story relates us to the Shivkhori Cave of Jammu and Kashmir. This place is about 750kms away from Delhi. According to the Shiva Puran, Lord Shiva hid from Bhasmashur by staying in this cave. This cave is so deep that, a person may suffer from Claustrophobia. Narrow lanes are there inside the cave. Big rock pieces surround the lanes from all the sides. Here, inside the cave, breathing problems may also occur due to insufficient supply of oxygen. If wrong steps, are taken, death is fully guaranteed. Deep inside the cave, there is a natural Shiva Ling like that of Amarnath. But this idol is made of rocks. The Shiva Ling's structure is same to that described in the Shiva Puran. Near to the Shiva Ling, there are many other small idols, which represent the family members of Lord Shiva. According to the priests and believers of God, before several eras, milk came out from the rocks of the cave and lord Shiva was automatically given puja. But, from the Kaliyug, milk stopped to come out from the rocks. Also, 33 crore idols made of rocks are present in this cave. These 33 crore idols represent 33 crore God and Goddesses. Even, here signs of trident and Sudarshan-chakra can be seen engraved inside the rocks. According to the local people, there is a way inside the cave, via which, we can reach Amarnath cave. But science doesn't tell all these as mythology and God's power. According to science, differences in rock formation may happen here due to the interplay of water, air and different chemical properties. But how does the art and architecture of the gate of the cave connect with Shiva Puran? The carvings of the outside of the cave are just as described in Shiva Puran.

PACHMARI, MADHYA PRADESH- At the Satpura range, there lays a hill called Nandigarh. On the top of the hill, there lays a place called Nandi-Dham. It is believed that Nandi (a strong-believer of Lord Shiva according to mythology) comes here and eats small plants. This place is 250kms away from Nagpur. The hill top looks like a sitting bull. During the morning-time, half chewed small plants lay near to the small naturally formed idol of Nandi. There are many animals in the forest of Satpura where several animals eat saplings. But how can they go on the top of the hill and eat? On the foothills of the hill, lay some footprints of animal. But that footprint is of Nandi? A veterinary doctor, after watching the half chewed leaf, said that the leaf may be eaten by a cow or a bull only. No other animals can chew like that. But, a scientist cum philosopher said that may a deer go up to the top of the hill and ate some small plants and the footprints on the foothills may be of some other animal, which was also searching for food.

SOLAN, HIMACHAL PRADEH- So, is God really present in the Earth? Let's make you know about some amazing characteristics of a temple in Himachal Pradesh. The temple is known as Barubara Temple. According to Mahabharata, the Pandavs took rest in this temple during their way to heaven. The temple is not of Kali or Shiva, but this temple is of Sahdev (the eldest of the Pandavs). But, there is no idol of Sahdev inside the temple. In a cave near to the temple, sounds of various musical instruments can be heard. It is believed that God enters into human beings and solve others problems. The temple is situated at about 8000 feet above sea-level. According to the local people and the priests, a black shadow is created in the entire area around the temple during puja. This shadow marks the arrival of Sahdev. While the existence of the shadow, it's believed that people forget everything and after the shadow goes off, people cannot remember what happened to them during the black shadow's existence. How can this happen?

 SUNDEBANS, WEST BENGAL- Sunderban, the largest delta of the world has also some supernatural facts. In Sunderban, a mysterious light can be seen in the sky at night. But this light can be seen only for some time then it automatically vanishes. There are some specified places, where the light can be seen. Local people call this light as "The Light of Heaven". Is the light actually coming from the heaven? Some scientific devices proved the existence of some negative energy in Sunderban. But this negative energy does not connect with ghosts. Negative energy may be present because the air and soil is also composed of positive and negative ions. But if we check the Sunderban area with a thermal sensor, then also we can't find any light power's radiation in the sky at night rather than the moon and stars. According to a scientist of Kolkata, there is a fact that in water log areas, methane gas accumulates heavily. Therefore, it may be such that the light glows in the sky due to the presence of methane gas. But, we can't prove that this happen due to the presence of methane gas only. Even, the scientist of Kolkata also included the term "MAY" in during his speech. So, we can't prove it as the magic of science. May the local people of Sunderban, the tribes, the fisherman is true in the aspect of the real proof.

Hence, science and mythology can't become equal. They are totally different and so, various opinions, judgements', etc may arise in and for the real truth. So can't we ever get the real truth and abide by it?

As we all know, India is a place of different religions, cultures, tradition, etc. So, different mindsets will also arise because we are not equal by social divisions. We are equal in sense of our evolution.

Does God really exist? I will make you know about some arguments and then I will tell about something relating to the existence of God.

      Argument from Motion:

Our senses prove that some things are in motion.

Things move when potential motion becomes actual motion.

Only an actual motion can convert a potential motion into an actual motion.

Nothing can be at once in both actuality and potentiality in the same respect (i.e., if both actual and potential, it is actual in one respect and potential in another).

Therefore nothing can move itself.

Therefore each thing in motion is moved by something else.

The sequence of motion cannot extend at infinite.

Therefore it is necessary to arrive at a first mover, put in motion by no other; and this everyone understands to be God.

      Arguments from Efficient Causes:

We perceive a series of efficient causes of things in the world.

Nothing exists prior to itself.

Therefore nothing [in the world of things we perceive] is the efficient cause of itself.

If a previous efficient cause does not exist, neither does the thing that result (the effect).

Therefore if the first thing in a series does not exist, nothing in the series exists.

If the series of efficient causes extends at infinite into the past, for then there would be no things existing now.

That is plainly false (i.e., there are things existing now that came about through efficient causes).

Therefore efficient causes do not extend ad infinitum into the past.

Therefore it is necessary to admit a first efficient cause, to which everyone gives the name of God.

       Argument from Possibility and Necessity:

We find in nature things that are possible to be and not to be, that come into being and go out of being i.e., contingent beings.

Assume that every being is a contingent being.

For each contingent being, there is a time it does not exist.

Therefore it is impossible for these always to exist.

Therefore there could have been a time when no things existed.

Therefore at that time there would have been nothing to bring the currently existing contingent beings into existence.

Therefore, nothing would be in existence now.

We have reached an absurd result from assuming that every being is a contingent being.

Therefore not every being is a contingent being.

Therefore some being exists of its own necessity, and does not receive its existence from another being, but rather causes them. This all men speak of as God.

Argument from Gradation of Being:

There is a gradation to be found in things: some are better or worse than others.

Predications of degree require reference to the "uttermost" case (e.g., a thing is said to be hotter according as it more nearly resembles that which is hottest).

The maximum in any genus is the cause of all in that genus.

Therefore there must also be something which is to all beings the cause of their being, goodness, and every other perfection; and this we call God.

     Argument from Design:

We see that natural bodies work toward some goal, and do not do so by chance.

Most natural things lack knowledge.

But as an arrow reaches its target because it is directed by an archer, what lacks intelligence achieves goals by being directed by something intelligence.

Therefore some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end; and this being we call God.

In the 18th century, German philosopher Gottfried Leibniz described God as "a necessary being which has its reason for existence in itself." It's interesting to note that Leibniz was also a mathematician and physicist; he invented differential and integral calculus at about the same time that Isaac Newton did. (They developed the math independently.) Both Leibniz and Newton considered themselves natural philosophers and they freely jumped back and forth between science and theology. But are these proofs universal truth? Answer is "NO", because they are not 100% proved yet.

Einstein often invoked God when he talked about physics. In 1919, after British scientists confirmed Einstein's general theory of relativity by detecting the bending of starlight around the sun, he was asked how he would've reacted if the researchers hadn't found the supporting evidence. "Then I would have felt sorry for the dear Lord," Einstein said. "The theory is correct." His attitude was a strange mix of humility and arrogance. He was clearly awed by the laws of physics and grateful that they were mathematically decipherable. ("The eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility," he said "The fact that it is comprehensible is a miracle".) Einstein famously criticized the indeterminacy of quantum theory by saying, "God does not play dice" with the universe".

The workings of human consciousness are similarly miraculous. Like the laws of mathematics, consciousness has no physical presence in the world; the images and thoughts in our consciousness have no measurable dimensions.

Yet, our nonphysical thoughts somehow mysteriously guide the actions of our physical human bodies. This is no more scientifically explicable than the mysterious ability of nonphysical mathematical constructions to determine the workings of a separate physical world.

Until recently, the scientifically unfathomable quality of human consciousness inhibited the very scholarly discussion of the subject. Since the 1970s, however, it has become a leading area of inquiry among philosophers.

Recognizing that he could not reconcile his own scientific materialism with the existence of a nonphysical world of human consciousness, a leading atheist, Daniel Dennet, in 1991 took the radical step of denying that consciousness even exists.

Finding this altogether implausible, as most people do, another leading philosopher, Thomas Nagel, wrote in 2012 that, given the scientifically inexplicable — the "intractable" — character of human consciousness, "We will have to leave [scientific] materialism behind" as a complete basis for understanding the world of human existence.

The supernatural character of the workings of human consciousness offers second strong rational grounds for raising the probability of the existence of a supernatural God.

British theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking schmoozed with popes during his lifetime, even though he was an avowed atheist. The famous scientist was often asked to explain his views on faith and God. During interviews, he explained his belief that there was no need for a creator.

He said during an interview with El Mundo in 2014: "Before we understand science, it is natural to believe that God created the universe. But now science offers a more convincing explanation. What I meant by 'we would know the mind of God is', we would know everything that God would know, if there were a God, which there isn't. I'm an atheist."

In essence, quantum physics is the study of matter and energy at very small, nanoscopic levels, beginning within nuclei, atoms and molecules. Modern science declares that "quanta particles" (light particle wave packets) form atoms. These atoms form molecules and molecules form objects—everything that we can see is made up of these quanta particles. What makes these quanta particles so special is that they do not behave in ways according to known laws of physics, thus making them more of a series of probabilities, rather than something we can scientifically define and observe. Everything that we can see is made up of things that we cannot see—unseen particles. It is in this unexplained, fundamental discovery in science that we find our first Biblical evidence of this phenomenon in Hebrews 11:3 "By faith we understand that the entire universe was formed at God's command, that what we now see did not come from anything that can be seen."

So we understand that quantum physics defines that everything is made up of little bits, but what is the force holding the quanta particles, atoms and molecules together? The answer is LIGHT. Light keeps electrons tied to the nuclei of atoms, and atoms tied together to make molecules and objects. All forms of matter are actually made up of solidified light. Here we find our second Biblical evidence of God's perfect design in the creation of this world, "Then God said, "Let there be light," and there was light. And God saw the light was good." (Genesis 1: 3-4, NLT) Throughout the rest of Genesis, God continued creating the splendor of the world--the sky, they earth, the ocean, the sun, the moon, the creatures and finally, man. Light was the first thing He made before all else. Light was essential to create these things, since His design requires the light force to bind our particles together.

Does God have to be part of our understanding of the universe? No. But if scientists tell the public that they have to choose between God and science, most people will choose God, which leads to denialism, hostility to science and the profoundly dangerous mental incoherence in modern society that fosters depression and conflict. Meanwhile, many of those who choose science find themselves without any way of thinking that can give them access to their own spiritual potential. What we need is a coherent big picture that is completely consistent with — and even inspired by — science, yet provides an empowering way of rethinking God that provides the human and social benefits without the fantasy. How can we get this?

Science can never tell us with certainty what's true, since there's always the possibility that some future discovery will rule it out. But science can often tell us with certainty what's not true. It can rule out the impossible. Galileo, for example, showed with his telescope that the medieval picture of earth as the center of heavenly crystal spheres could not be true, even though he could not prove that the earth moves around the sun. Whenever scientists produce the evidence that convincingly rules out the impossible, there's no point in arguing. It's over. Grace lies in accepting and recalculating. That's how science moves forward.

Characteristics of God according to people:

God existed before the universe.

God created the universe.

God knows everything.

God intends everything that happens.

God can choose to violate the laws of nature.

Are these characteristics regarding God true?

Existence of God is surely a fundamental question that nearly all humans have pondered with throughout human history. The vast array of religions is a testimony to the human tendency to grasp at the divine. This in itself is perhaps the strongest testimony to God's existence. It can be said that all humans have an innate desire; an emptiness that they feel must be filled. The human quest for power, riches, sensual pleasure, security, fame and indulgence in natural pleasures is a response to the heartfelt desire for a higher goodness. Temporal pleasures and even natural love is often transitory and ultimately unfulfilling. As humans indulge in their passions their desires continue to go unfulfilled. Many attempt to fill the void with increasing worldly pleasures with little results.

Such powerful and elusive desires are a cry from the soul which seeks something that cannot be gratified by the things of this world. For the moment we will consider discontent of the heart as a mark of God calling us to embrace Him.

Let's take a look at some religions of India, which will help us to know more about God.

ISLAM- Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is a messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with 1.9 billion followers or 24.5% of the world's population, known as Muslims. The religion of Islam was revealed to Muhammad Ibn Abdullah, who became known as the Prophet Muhammad, in central Arabia between 610 and 632 C.E. Muhammad did not think that he was founding a new religion with a new scripture but, rather, bringing belief in the one God, a belief already held by Christians and Jews, to the Arabs. The Koran's revelations were seen as a return in the midst of a polytheistic society to the forgotten past, to the faith of the first monotheist, Abraham. Muslims believe that God sent revelations first to Moses, as found in the Hebrew Scriptures (the Torah), then to Jesus (the Gospels), and finally to Muhammad (the Koran).

Christianity is the most popular religion in the world with over 2,000 million adherents. 42 million Britons see themselves as nominally Christian, and there are 6 million who are actively practising.Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah promised in the Old Testament.

Christians believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.

Christians believe that God sent his Son to earth to save humanity from the consequences of its sins.

One of the most important concepts in Christianity is that of Jesus giving his life on the Cross (the Crucifixion) and rising from the dead on the third day (the Resurrection).

Christians believe that there is only one God, but that there are three elements to this one God:

God the Father.

God the Son.

The Holy Spirit.

Christians worship in churches.

Their spiritual leaders are called priests or ministers.

The Christian holy book is the Bible, and consists of the Old and New Testaments.

Christian holy days such as Easter and Christmas are important milestones in the Western secular calendar.

SIKHISM- Sikhism is a religion that originated in Punjab of Indian subcontinent around the end of 15th century. This religion is based on the teachings (spiritual) of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Sikhs refer to the hymns of the Gurus as Gurbani ('The Guru's word'). A key practice by Sikhs is remembrance of the Divine Name WaheGuru (Naam – the Name of the Lord). This contemplation is done through Nām Japna (repetition of the divine name) or Naam Simran (remembrance of the divine Name through recitation). The verbal repetition of the name of God or a sacred syllable has been an ancient established practice in religious traditions in India; however, Sikhism developed Naam-Simran as an important Bhakti practice. Guru Nanak's ideal is the total exposure of one's being to the divine Name and a total conforming to Dharma or the "Divine Order". Nanak described the result of the disciplined application of nām simraṇ as a "growing towards and into God" through a gradual process of five stages. The last of these is sach khaṇḍ (The Realm of Truth) – the final union of the spirit with God.JASINISM- Jainism is one of the oldest religions of India. According to Jainism, the existence of "a bound and ever changing soul" is a self-evident truth, an axiom which does not need to be proven. It maintains that there are numerous souls, but every one of them has three qualities Guna; consciousness (chaitanya, the most important), bliss (sukha) and vibrational energy (virya). It further claims that the vibration draws karmic particles to the soul and creates bondages, but is also what adds merit or demerit to the soul. Jain texts state that souls exist as "clothed with material bodies", where it entirely fills up the body. Karma, as in other Indian religions, connotes in Jainism the universal cause and effect law. However, it is envisioned as a material substance (subtle matter) that can bind to the soul, travel with the soul in bound form between rebirths, and affect the suffering and happiness experienced by the jiva in the lokas. Karma is believed to obscure and obstruct the innate nature and striving of the soul, as well as its spiritual potential in the next rebirth.JUDAISM- Judaism is a religion comprising of various rituals and traditions. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenant that God established with the Children of Israel. It is history that provides the key to an understanding of Judaism, for its primal affirmations appear in early historical narratives. Thus, the Bible reports contemporary events and activities for essentially religious reasons. The biblical authors believed that the divine presence is encountered primarily within history. God's presence is also experienced within the natural realm, but the more immediate or intimate disclosure occurs in human actions. Although other ancient communities also perceived a divine presence in history, the understanding of the ancient Israelites proved to be the most lasting and influential. It is this particular claim—to have experienced God's presence in human events—and its subsequent development that is the differentiating factor in Jewish thought.BUDDHISM- The teaching founded by the Buddha is known, in English, as Buddhism. It may be asked, who is the Buddha? A Buddha is one who has attained Bodhi; and by Bodhi is meant wisdom, an ideal state of intellectual and ethical perfection which can be achieved by man through purely human means. The term Buddha literally means enlightened one, a knower. Buddhists believe that a Buddha is born in each aeon of time, and our Buddha—the sage Gautama who attained enlightenment under the bo tree at Buddh Gaya in India—was the seventh in the succession. Buddhism is also a vast religion with many beliefs and thoughts.

One problem posed by the question of the existence of God is that traditional beliefs usually ascribe to God various supernatural powers. Supernatural beings may be able to conceal and reveal themselves for their own purposes, as for example in the tale of Baucis and Philemon. In addition, according to concepts of God, God is not part of the natural order, but the ultimate creator of nature and of the scientific laws. Thus in Aristotelian philosophy, God is viewed as part of the explanatory structure needed to support scientific conclusions and any powers God possesses are—strictly speaking—of the natural order that is derived from God's place as originator of nature (see also Monadology).

In Karl Popper's philosophy of science, belief in a supernatural God is outside the natural domain of scientific investigation because all scientific hypotheses must be falsifiable in the natural world. The non-overlapping magisteria view proposed by Stephen Jay Gould also holds that the existence (or otherwise) of God is irrelevant to and beyond the domain of science.

Scientists follow the scientific method, within which theories must be verifiable by physical experiment. The majority of prominent conceptions of God explicitly or effectively posit a being whose existence is not testable either by proof or disproof. Therefore, the question of God's existence may lie outside the purview of modern science by definition. The Catholic Church maintains that knowledge of the existence of God is the "natural light of human reason". Fideists maintain that belief in God's existence may not be amenable to demonstration or refutation, but rests on faith alone.

Logical positivists such as Rudolf Carnap and A. J. Ayer viewed any talk of gods as literal nonsense. For the logical positivists and adherents of similar schools of thought, statements about religious or other transcendent experiences cannot have a truth value, and are deemed to be without meaning, because such statements do not have any clear verification criteria. As the Christian biologist Scott C. Todd put it "Even if all the data pointed to an intelligent designer, such a hypothesis is excluded from science because it is not naturalistic." This argument limits the domain of science to the empirically observable and limits the domain of God to the unprovable.

HOW TO FIND GOD? (Answers are according to the Christian Fathers)

Seek God in the hope that they might feel their way toward him and find Him.

Seek Him with all your heart.

Seek Him diligently, find Him.

Walk in the path of light.

Seek the Lord and his strength; seek his presence continually!

Hear the words by Jesus Christ.

Anyone who does not love does not know God, because God is love.

These points were told by Christian Fathers for achieving God.

Science has brought us an immense amount of understanding. The sum total of human knowledge doubles roughly every couple of years or less. In physics and cosmology, we can now claim to know what happened to our universe as early as a tiny fraction of a second after the Big Bang, something that may seem astounding. In chemistry, we understand the most complicated reactions among atoms and molecules, and in biology we know how the living cell works and have mapped out our entire genome. But does this vast knowledge base disprove the existence of some kind of pre-existent outside force that may have launched our universe on its way?

Science won major victories against entrenched religious dogma throughout the 19th century. In the 1800s, discoveries of Neanderthal remains in Belgium, Gibraltar and Germany showed that humans were not the only hominids to occupy earth, and fossils and remains of now extinct animals and plants further demonstrated that flora and fauna evolve, live for millennia and then sometimes die off, ceding their place on the planet to better-adapted species. These discoveries lent strong support to the then emerging theory of evolution, published by Charles Darwin in 1859. And in 1851, Leon Foucault, a self-trained French physicist, proved definitively that earth rotates—rather than staying in place as the sun revolved around it—using a special pendulum whose circular motion revealed the planet's rotation. Geological discoveries made over the same century devastated the "young earth" hypothesis. We now know that earth is billions, not thousands, of years old, as some theologians had calculated based on counting generations back to the biblical Adam. All of these discoveries defeated literal interpretations of Scripture.

But has modern science, from the beginning of the 20th century, proved that there is no God, as some commentators now claim? Science is an amazing, wonderful undertaking: it teaches us about life, the world and the universe. But it has not revealed to us why the universe came into existence nor what preceded its birth in the Big Bang. Biological evolution has not brought us the slightest understanding of how the first living organisms emerged from inanimate matter on this planet and how the advanced eukaryotic cells—the highly structured building blocks of advanced life forms—ever emerged from simpler organisms. Neither does it explain one of the greatest mysteries of science: how did consciousness arise in living things? Where do symbolic thinking and self-awareness come from? What is it that allows humans to understand the mysteries of biology, physics, mathematics, engineering and medicine? And what enables us to create great works of art, music, architecture and literature? Science is nowhere near to explaining these deep mysteries.

But much more important than these conundrums is the persistent question of the fine-tuning of the parameters of the universe: Why is our universe so precisely tailor-made for the emergence of life? This question has never been answered satisfactorily, and I believe that it will never find a scientific solution. For the deeper we delve into the mysteries of physics and cosmology, the more the universe appears to be intricate and incredibly complex. To explain the quantum-mechanical behavior of even one tiny particle requires pages and pages of extremely advanced mathematics. Why even the tiniest particles of matter are so unbelievably complicated? It appears that there is a vast, hidden "wisdom," or structure, or knotty blueprint for even the most simple-looking element of nature. And the situation becomes much more daunting as we expand our view to the entire cosmos.

We know that 13.7 billion years ago, a gargantuan burst of energy, whose nature and source are completely unknown to us and not in the least understood by science, initiated the creation of our universe. Then suddenly, as if by magic, the "God particle"—the Higgs boson discovered two years ago inside CERN's powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider—came into being and miraculously gave the universe its mass. Why did this happen? The mass constituted elementary particles—the quarks and the electron—whose weights and electrical charges had to fall within immeasurably tight bounds for what would happen next. For from within the primeval soup of elementary particles that constituted the young universe, again as if by a magic hand, all the quarks suddenly bunched in threes to form protons and neutrons, their electrical charges set precisely to the exact level needed to attract and capture the electrons, which then began to circle nuclei made of the protons and neutrons. All of the masses, charges and forces of interaction in the universe had to be in just the precisely needed amounts so that early light atoms could form. Larger ones would then be cooked in nuclear fires inside stars, giving us carbon, iron, nitrogen, oxygen and all the other elements that are so essential for life to emerge. And eventually, the highly complicated double-helix molecule, the life-propagating DNA, would be formed.

Why did everything we need in order to exist come into being? How was all of this possible without some latent outside power to orchestrate the precise dance of elementary particles required for the creation of all the essentials of life? The great British mathematician Roger Penrose has calculated—based on only one of the hundreds of parameters of the physical universe—that the probability of the emergence of a life-giving cosmos was 1 divided by 10, raised to the power 10, and again raised to the power of 123. This is a number as close to zero as anyone has ever imagined. (The probability is much, much smaller than that of winning the Mega Millions jackpot for more days than the universe has been in existence.)

The scientific atheists have scrambled to explain this troubling mystery by suggesting the existence of a multiverse—an infinite set of universes, each with its own parameters. In some universes, the conditions are wrong for life; however, by the sheer size of this putative multiverse, there must be a universe where everything is right. But if it takes an immense power of nature to create one universe, then how much more powerful would that force have to be in order to create infinitely many universes? So the purely hypothetical multiverse does not solve the problem of God. The incredible fine-tuning of the universe presents the most powerful argument for the existence of an immanent creative entity we may well call God. Lacking convincing scientific evidence to the contrary, such a power may be necessary to force all the parameters we need for our existence—cosmological, physical, chemical, biological and cognitive—to be what they are.

Science and religion are two sides of the same deep human impulse to understand the world, to know our place in it, and to marvel at the wonder of life and the infinite cosmos we are surrounded by. Let's keep them that way, and not let one attempt to usurp the role of the other.


Heaven or the heavens, is a place where beings such as gods, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live. According to the beliefs of some religions, heavenly beings can descend to Earth or incarnate and earthly beings can ascend to Heaven in the afterlife or, in exceptional cases, enter Heaven alive. The words for heaven or heavens in both Hebrew (shamayim) and Greek (ouranos) can also be translated as sky. It is not something that exists eternally but rather part of creation.

The first line of the Bible states that heaven is created along with the creation of the earth (Genesis 1). It is primarily God's dwelling place in the biblical tradition: a parallel realm where everything operates according to God's will. Heaven is a place of peace, love, community, and worship, where God is surrounded by a heavenly court and other heavenly beings.

Biblical authors imagined the earth as a flat place with Sheol below (the realm of the dead) and a dome over the earth that separates it from the heavens or sky above. Of course, we know the earth is not flat, and this three-tiered universe makes no sense to a modern mind. Even so, the concept of heaven (wherever it is located) continues in Christian theology as the place where God dwells and a theological claim that this world is not all that there is.

The other main metaphor for God's dwelling place in the Bible is paradise. According to Luke's version of the crucifixion, Jesus converses with the men on either side of him while waiting to die and promises the man on a neighboring cross "today you will be with me in paradise".

References to paradise in the Bible are likely due to the influence of Persian culture and particularly Persian Royal gardens (paridaida). Persian walled gardens were known for their beautiful layout, diversity of plant life, walled enclosures, and being a place where the royal family might safely walk. They were effectively a paradise on earth.

The Garden of Eden in Genesis 2 is strikingly similar to a Persian Royal garden or paradise. It has abundant water sources in the rivers that run through it, fruit and plants of every kind for food, and it is "pleasing to the eye". God dwells there, or at least visits, and talks with Adam and Eve like a King might in a royal garden.

In the grand mythic stories that make up the Bible, humans are thrown out of Eden due to their disobedience. And so begins a narrative about human separation from the divine and how humans find their way back to God and God's dwelling (paradise). In the Christian tradition, Jesus is the means of return.

The Easter event that Christians celebrate around the globe at this time of year is about the resurrection of Jesus after his violent death on the cross three days earlier. Jesus' resurrection is seen as the promise; the "first-fruits" of what is possible for all humans – resurrection to an eternal life with God. This is, of course, a matter of faith not something that can be proven. But reconciliation with God lies at the heart of the Easter story.

The last book of the Bible, Revelation, conflates the idea of heaven and paradise. The author describes a vision of a new, re-created heaven coming down to earth. It is not escapism from this planet but rather an affirmation of all that is created, material, and earthly but now healed and renewed.

This final biblical vision of heaven is a lot like the Garden of Eden – complete with the Tree of Life, rivers, plants and God – although this time it is also an urban, multicultural city. In what is essentially a return to Eden, humans are reconciled with God and, of course, with one another.

Heaven or paradise in the Bible is a utopian vision, designed not only to inspire faith in God but also in the hope that people might embody the values of love and reconciliation in this world.

HELL: Hell, in many religious traditions, the abode, usually beneath the earth, of the unredeemed dead or the spirits of the damned. In its archaic sense, the term hell refers to the underworld, a deep pit or distant land of shadows where the dead are gathered. From the underworld come dreams, ghosts, and demons, and in its most terrible precincts sinners pay—some say eternally—the penalty for their crimes. The underworld is often imagined as a place of punishment rather than merely of darkness and decomposition because of the widespread belief that a moral universe requires judgment and retribution—crime must not pay. More broadly, hell figures in religious cosmologies as the opposite of heaven, the nadir of the cosmos, and the land where God is not. In world literature the journey to hell is a perennial motif of hero legends and quest stories, and hell itself is the preeminent symbol of evil, alienation, and despair.

The Old English Hel belongs to a family of Germanic words meaning "to cover" or "to conceal." Hel is also the name, in Old Norse, of the Scandinavian queen of the underworld. Many English translations of the Bible use hell as an English equivalent of the Hebrew terms Sheʾōl (or Sheol) and Gehinnom or Gehenna (Hebrew: gê-hinnōm). The term Hell is also used for the Greek Hades and Tartarus, which have markedly different connotations. As this confusion of terms suggests, the idea of hell has a complex history, reflecting changing attitudes toward death and judgment, sin and salvation, and crime and punishment.

Mesopotamia:Mesopotamian civilizations from the 3rd to the 1st millennium BCE produced a rich literature dealing with death and hell, much of it designed to impress upon the hearer the vast gulf separating the living from the dead and the fragility of the cosmic order on which vitality and fertility depend. In Mesopotamian traditions, hell is described as a distant land of no return, a house of dust where the dead dwell without distinction of rank or merit, and a sealed fortress, typically of seven gates, barred against invasion or escape. In a cycle of Sumerian and Akkadian poems, the god-king Gilgamesh, despairing over the death of his companion Enkidu, travels to the world's end, crosses the ocean of death, and endures great trials only to learn that mortality is an incurable condition. Hell, according to the Gilgamesh epic, is a house of darkness where the dead "drink dirt and eat stone." More details of this grim realm emerge in the poems about the Sumerian shepherd and fertility god Tammuz (Akkadian: Dumuzi) and his consort Inanna (Akkadian: Ishtar), who in her various aspects is the mistress of date clusters and granaries, the patroness of prostitutes and alehouses, a goddess associated with the planet Venus and spring thunderstorms, and a deity of fertility, and war. Inanna is also the sister of Ereshkigal, queen of the dead. An impulsive goddess, Inanna, according to some versions of the myth, is said to have threatened, in a fit of pique, to crush the gates of hell and let the dead overrun the earth. In the poem Descent of Inanna, she sets forth to visit Ereshkigal's kingdom in splendid dress, only to be compelled, at each of the seven gates, to shed a piece of her regalia. Finally, Inanna falls naked and powerless before Ereshkigal, who hangs her up like so much meat upon a drying hook. Drought descends upon the earth as a result, but the gods help revive Inanna, who escapes by offering her husband as a replacement. This ransom secures the fecundity of the earth and the integrity of the grain stores by reinforcing the boundary between hell and earth. It is the better part of wisdom, the tradition suggests, for mortals to make the most of earthly life before they are carried off into death's long exile.

ISLAMIC THOUGHTS ABOUT HELL: According to Islamic thought, the existence of hell (Jahannam) bears witness to God's sovereignty, justice, and mercy and also stands as a warning to individuals and nations of the definitive choice to be made between fidelity and infidelity, righteousness and iniquity, and life and death. The major Islamic schools agree that it is essential to one's identity as a Muslim to believe in and look forward to the day—or, more pointedly, the hour—when God will bring his creation to an end, raise the dead, reunite them with their souls, judge them one by one, and commit each individual, as he deserves, to the joys of the garden (paradise) or the terrors of the fire (hell). Symbols reminiscent of Egyptian, Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian judgment scenes recur in Islamic accounts, in particular the record of deeds, the weighing of the soul, and the test-bridge, which widens for the righteous but narrows to a knife-edge for sinners, who lose their footing and plunge into the flames below. According to Islamic teaching, God exercises complete authority over the course of events. He has predetermined human destiny yet justly holds individuals accountable for their choices in life. Immune to special pleading, God, in his mercy, reserves the power to save those whom he wills and to look favorably upon those for whom the Prophet Muhammad intercedes. He created hell, with its seven ordered gates, for a deep purpose but has fixed a limit to the suffering of believers who have sinned. For unbelievers, who refuse to acknowledge their Creator, there is no hope of final redemption from the fire. The Quran has little to say about the interval (barzakh) between death and resurrection, but later Islamic literature makes the deathbed and the grave the setting of a preliminary judgment. The soul of the pious Muslim, it is held, will experience an easy death and a pleasant sojourn in the grave. The infidel's soul, violently torn from the body and failing interrogation by the angels Munkar and Nakir, will suffer torment in the grave until the day when it will take up its place in hell, there to dine on bitter fruit and pus and to be roasted and boiled with all the usual infernal devices for as long as God sees fit. Like the joys of heaven, the pains of hell are profoundly physical and spiritual. The worst of all torments is the estrangement from God.


In the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE, Indo-European peoples migrated into northwestern India, bringing with them a religion influenced by that of ancient Iran. According to the great texts of this tradition, the Vedas (c. 1500–1200 BCE), the proper performance of sacrifices establishes right relations with the cosmos, enabling one to prosper in life and to join one's ancestors in the sky in death. The ritually unprepared, and in later accounts the ignorant and morally unworthy, face the grim prospect of near-extinction or descent into a dark, cold underworld. In the esoteric teachings recorded in the foundational philosophical texts of classical Hinduism, the Brahmanas and Upanishads, hope for a joyful immortality depends upon finding within oneself, and harnessing through spiritual discipline, the mysterious power Brahman, which pervades the universe and dwells hidden in the sounds and gestures of ritual sacrifice. Those who die unprepared must be reborn (samsara) to live out the consequences of their past deeds (karma). Grave sins incur a miserable rebirth in hell or an interval in hell en route to rebirth on a low plane of existence. The goal of Hindu practice is to be freed from all forms of birth and to be restored to a state of perfect consciousness and imperishable bliss in communion with the divine.

As Hindu mythology evolved, Yama, at first a celestial god and judge of the dead, became associated with death in its most fearsome aspect, and the underworld hells became as numerous and varied as the heavens. The Puranas, encyclopedic collections of Hindu myths and legends, supplied vivid details on the modalities of dismemberment, piercing, burning, and putrefaction assigned to each hell and specific to each crime. In the devotional forms of Hinduism that began to flower in the 12th and 13th centuries and continue to predominate today, the wish to avoid rebirth in hell is a powerful incentive to offer worship and perform selfless acts. Hindu philosophers and mystics, however, have continued to concentrate on the ultimate goal of transcending rebirth completely through spiritual discipline.

ACCORDING TO BUDDHISM- A philosophical salvation movement arising in the same ascetic milieu that produced the Upanishads, Buddhism stresses the impermanence of all states of samsara and offers a variety of spiritual practices for attaining liberation. So long as one is driven by ignorance and desire and is encumbered by the residue of past deeds, death brings no cessation to repeated rebirth. One may be reborn as a god (deva), demigod (asura), human being, animal, hungry ghost, or hell being. Early Buddhist texts speak of multiple hot hells beneath the earth, but Mahayana traditions locate hells throughout the millions of universes in which sentient beings suffer and compassionate buddhas teach. Although all these realms are deemed ultimately illusory, the suffering of hell beings and hungry ghosts (who are tortured by unceasing hunger and thirst) is excruciating, and its vivid depiction in Buddhist literature and art heightens the sense of urgency to perform good deeds, to transfer the merit thus gained to those in need, and to take refuge in the protection of buddhas and bodhisattvas (those who vow to become a buddha and dedicate themselves to helping others achieve enlightenment). Mahayana Buddhism extols the compassion of great bodhisattvas who use their magical power to descend to the lowest hells in order to preach the saving dharma (the universal truth taught by the Buddha) and to share their merit with the wretched. The compassionate presence in hell of the bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara (often portrayed as a beautiful young female and known as Guanyin in China and as Kannon in Japan), Kshitigarbha (known as Dizang in China and as Jizo in Japan), and the heroic monk Mulian (who interceded with the Buddha and won his mother's release from torment in hell) are, therefore, important examples of this Mahayana teaching. In China the confluence of Buddhist, Daoist, and folk traditions produced an elaborate ceremonial system for relieving the suffering of hungry ghosts and hell beings and exorcising their negative influence on the living. Hell, with its 10 fearsome courts, is a where judges are amenable to bribes and souls undergo trials and endure judicial tortures. The deceased are supported by their living kin, who remember them with honor, performing good deeds, sponsoring rituals in their name, and burning or decorating the grave with paper effigies of money, food, clothing, cars, and other essentials. Esoteric rites for opening the gates of hell and feeding the hungry ghosts and hell beings extend this filial compassion from the family to the whole population of suffering beings. Purgatorial in nature, Chinese hells are not beyond the reach of human intervention, and the shared obligation to succor the beings who suffer there has been a powerful force for social cohesion.

Modern Attitudes:

In the modern world, especially in the West, cultural shifts caused by the Enlightenment, 19th-century liberalism, and the psychotherapeutic culture of the late 20th century have contributed to a decline in the belief in an everlasting hell. Defenders of the belief regard this as a lamentable loss of nerve, of faith, and of moral seriousness. Hell may not be wished away, in their view, but must be conquered—by the merciful savior who liberates the spirits from bondage, by the overpowering force of divine forgiveness, or by a final battle, the ultimate outcome of which, some hope, will be hell emptied, hell despoiled.

LIMBO is a place between the heaven and hell, where those souls dwell who, though not condemned to punishment, are deprived of the joy of eternal existence with God in heaven. The name of this place is also mentioned in the Bible. This idea is also mentioned in the Roman Catholic traditions.

Muslims, Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, all worships in their own religious styles. But, Aryans claim God to be one and with no second figure. So, why are religions divided?



Rate this content
Log in

More english story from Amritangshu Ghosh

Similar english story from Classics