Human Rights In Islam
Human Rights In Islam
There are many types of rights that a person enjoys, but in this article I will address five rights that are guaranteed by Islam for humans, which are:
• The right to freedom of opinion and thought.
• The right to equality.
• The right to justice between people.
• The right to a fair trial.
• rights and duties during the war.
1- The right to freedom of opinion and thought:
Islam called for freedom of thought, and rid the mind of the sultan of the past and the control of the fathers, and the enslavement of custom and traditions. And he ordered to look at the wonders of the universe and gave examples of that open minds. It is established that the spirit of Islam gave way to free opinion and frank thought, and he hated the frank man who said that the best of people did well, and if they were bad, they did wrong, and he used to ask his companions to give their opinion on some issues and try to solve the difficulties they encounter.
The Muslims used to do that and judged their minds in matters of religion and worldly affairs, which were not mentioned in a text from the Book or the Sunnah or in tafsir ahlam of ibn sirin. Perhaps they interpreted the text and interpreted it in proportion to the requirements of the need. So, Abu Bakr fought those who withheld the zakat by analogy with them to those who neglected prayer and equalized between the Muhajirun and the Ansar in the spoils. And when the caliphate led to Umar, he divided between them and distributed them according to their different levels in Islam and jihad. They did not denounce the difference of opinion or object to it, and this is the very intellectual freedom. "He who strives and is correct will have two rewards, and whoever strives and is wrong will have the reward of his diligence." And they were not satisfied with the individual opinion, but they tried to take the opinion of the group, and consult the heads of the people and their choice. Abu Bakr and Omar, if their party was a matter, they gathered the senior companions to exchange opinions on it, and if they agreed on something, they decided.
2- The right to equality as opposed to racial discrimination:
Equality is the language of similarity and equation, and it may be considered in how towards this blackness is equal to that blackness, although its achievement is due to considering its place without itself and not considering the equation in which the use of justice is used, because equality uses the use of justice and that justice uses the use of equality.
Islam is a religion of absolute tolerance unchallenged , although it is difficult for Western observers to understand that, this is Islam that is more deserving of truth. Islam's insistence on the necessity of tolerance and tolerance is rooted in the Holy Qur'an.
The call of Islam respects the human being completely, and it is a universal call that addresses all human beings, so it does not differentiate between a Muslim and a non-Muslim.
It is noted that the unity of human nature does not conflict with the difference of individuals and the multiplicity of peoples, because this difference and diversity is accidental, subject to different conditions such as the environment, climate, standard of living, and the degree of culture, and this is followed by other incidental matters such as skin color or length and shortness of the body, or the contrast of languages and differences in traditions and customs.
In the Global Statement on Human Rights in Islam, which was adopted by the Islamic Council on Paris on the 21st of Dhul Qi'dah 1401 AH, corresponding to September 19, 1981 AD, that:
All people in Islam are equal before Sharia: "There is no preference for an Arab over a non-Arab, nor for a non-Arab over an Arab, nor for a red over a black, nor for a black over a red except by piety" from a sermon of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him.
Every individual has the right to benefit from the material resources of society through a work opportunity equal to that of others, and it is not permissible to differentiate between individuals in terms of remuneration, as long as the effort expended is the same.
Based on this, we see that the call of Islam is still valid, and we are not able to strengthen and spread it, and humanity is in dire need of being guided by its guidance. Especially when we live even today in an atmosphere of racial discrimination between whites and blacks,
3- The right to justice among people:
In Islam, we find the "value" of justice high and shining, at the fore of all the constant "values" that the religion calls for, as it is the first purpose of the Sharia, and all the ways to ensure its realization are Islamic legal means, even if they are not stipulated by revelation or mentioned in the aphorisms. Rather, we find "justice" as one of the most beautiful names of God, and an attribute of His attributes, Glory be to Him, and this suffices as evidence of the loftiest place of justice in Islamic thought, and justice in Islamic custom against "injustice and injustice," which means combining Islam with a civilizational characteristic, i.e. moderation and balance realized by insight. He achieves justice by giving each person what he has and taking what he owes from him.
And the Prophet equalized between the Muslims in his hadith and his gathering, and he was fair between them in terms of debt and sheep, and he was fair to them in everything, even from himself, and he did not respond to favoritism or favoritism. For him, "Get up, O blackness", and captured his uncle Al-Abbas and his cousin Aqil bin Abi Talib in the Battle of Badr, so he committed them to what the other captives had committed to in terms of redemption.
There are many rights on which Islam built its political, economic, and social system for the state, and all of them are rights from the reality of Islamic Sharia that came with the value religion, and from the reality of the Sunnah of the Messenger, and from the reality of the actions of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, Caliphs and Scholars during their coexistence and interaction in social life in general since the establishment of the rules of the Islamic state In Madinah under the leadership of the Messenger, may God's prayers and peace be upon him, the Islamic rights of all human beings, like all noble values, must be rooted in the souls, and some may call them principles, rules or foundations. to judge.
4- Right to a fair trial:
Justice in Islam is considered one of its most important basic principles, and on its foundations, the relations between the state and individuals are based, as are all the ties between them, because people are equal in the eyes of Islam and they are like the teeth of a comb, as described by the Great Messenger, may God's prayers and peace be upon him, and because the injustice that God, Glory be to Him, hates it and the duty to raise it from among them, even if it comes from those who follow their command. It is established in the jurisprudence of Sharia that rulers are to be punished from them like the rest of the individuals, and the had punishments are established for them if they do what necessitates that and from the requirements of justice that Islam imposes on ruling between people with the truth.
A) Al-Baraa' is the principle: "All of my nations is healthy except for those who speak loudly" (Bukhari). It is concomitant and continuous even when the person is charged unless his guilt is proven in a fair court.
b) There is no criminalization except with a legal text: "And We would not torment until We sent a Messenger."  A Muslim is not excused for being ignorant of what is known of the religion by necessity.
c) A person shall not be convicted of a crime, and a crime shall not be punished unless it is proven that he committed it with irreversible evidence before a court of full judicial nature.
d) It is not permissible - under any circumstance - to exceed the punishment prescribed by Sharia for the crime: One of the principles of Sharia is observing the circumstances and circumstances in which the crime was committed in order to ward off the punishments:
And if the right of every person to review the courts has become in the modern era guaranteed by texts contained in most of the world's constitutions and in the Bill of Human Rights, then it is not necessary to say to affirm that the right to seek justice in the Islamic system was not guaranteed by the texts of the Noble Qur'an supported by the Prophetic Sunnah only. Rather, in the biography of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and among the most important facts, there is evidence that the aforementioned right was protected by the personal behavior of the Caliphs themselves and their efforts to enable people to exercise it and their determination to do their work in making it easier for the oppressed. His right, God willing." And Omar Ibn Al-Khattab addresses the people and says to them: "No, by God, I did not send my workers to you to strike your bones, nor to take your money, but I sent them to you to teach you your religion and your Sunnah, so whoever does it other than that, let him raise it to me, for by the one in whose hand I am, I will cut him off from him." And as if Ibn Al-Khattab was not satisfied with this and holding Amr Ibn Al-Aas, one of his senior workers accountable, for the word "O hypocrite" he said to a man who complained about him, saying: "Oh, Commander of the Faithful, Omar has spent me. With the kindness of the individual, I was afraid that he would feel By God, by Omar.
5- Rights and duties during the war:
The principles of Islam are very clear with regard to war, for Islam has established for its morals and traditions that humanity has never known before Islam and no nation has been restricted to its counterparts in all ages and times. Everything that dishonors the dignity of Islam.
Islam has enjoined warring parties in general not to start a war of treachery and to avoid killing enemies by treachery, and not to kill a woman, or a boy, or an incapacitated old man, or a crippled man, or a man who is cut off for worship.
And even that Islam preserved civilians during the war, its inviolability. "If the war goes on, the sanctity of civilians, children, and the elderly are taken into account. For this reason, Islam gave many rights to protect civilians during the war if it occurred, whether they were civilians from Muslims or enemies. The horrors of war, and this is within the etiquette of war in Islam that Islam has cultivated, which shows that it is a religion of mercy, tolerance, and charity because it is a heavenly religion with a human goal and the merciful human motives that govern the Muslim in his fight if he is mobilized and forced to do so. Restricting the fighting to the fighting army, to the exclusion of women, children, elders, and monks, as this was mentioned in many honorable prophetic hadiths, including what was narrated on the authority of Anas bin Malik that the Messenger of God, peace, and blessings be upon him, said: "Go in the name of God, by God, and by the religion of the Messenger of God, and do not kill an old man or A child, or a young child, or a woman, and do not go to excess and gather your spoils, and reform and do good, for God loves the doers of good."
In this context, the so-called international protection organizations for human rights in exceptional circumstances were established at the Paris Conference held in 1984 and which was supervised by Dr. Muhammad Al-Saeed Al-Daqqaq. Including the right to life, as well as the right not to be subjected to torture or to an inhuman or specific treatment or punishment.